Lch S Ca Quyn

Kinh Thnh

 

 

Danh t Kinh Thnh ܮc dch ra t ch La-tinh "biblia" c ngha l quyn sch. Ngy xa ngܩi ta dng v cy ct ra tht mng nh t giy (papyrus) Nj ghi chp cc ti liu, loi giy ny ܮc sn xut v bn i cc ni t thnh ph Biblios, mt hi cng pha bc nܧc Do Thi, ca ngܩi Ph-ni-xi, gn Beyruth, Lebanon ngy nay.

Vo th k th 5 S. C., cc Hi thnh Hy Lp dng danh t "T Biblia" hoc "Biblia" cho Cc Quyn Sch Thnh (Kinh Thnh). Nhiu ngܩi cho rng Jean Chrysostome trܪng lo ti thnh Constantinople (398-404 S. C.), l ngܩi th nht dng danh t ny. n th k th 13, th "T Biblia" tr nn "Biblio" hay "Biblia[1]" theo ting La-tinh tc l Cc Sch Thnh tr nn Kinh Thnh. Sau cc nܧc Ty phng cng chp nhn v dng danh t "The Bible" hoc "La Bible".

 

I. Ni Dung:

Kinh Thnh gm c phn Cu Чc v Tn Чc. Ch Чc trong Cu Чc ܮc dch t danh t berith ca Hy-b-lai c ngha l giao ܧc. Trong Tn Чc, ch Чc ܮc dch t danh t diatheke ca Hy Lp c ngha l chc th (testament) hay giao ܧc (covenant). Ni dung ca Cu Чc ni ln giao ܧc gia c Cha Tri v dn s ca Ngi, tc l dn Do-thi. Cn Tn Чc ni v giao ܧc mi ca Thܮng vi loi ngܩi, "hu cho h ai tin Con Ngi NJu ܮc s sng ǩi ǩi".

A. Cu Чc ca C c gio v Kinh Thnh Do thi gio (Hebrew Bible) NJu ging nhau. Cu Чc c 39 quyn sch trong khi Kinh Thnh Do-thi c 24. S khc bit ny l do cc v lnh o C c gio ngy xa chia cc sch Tin tri v lch s ra lm nhiu sch ring bit. Cu Чc ܮc c Cha Jsus v cc Mn cng S nhn nhn v gi l Kinh Thnh (Scripture, Holy Scriptures). Cc sch ca Cu Чc v Kinh Thnh Do-thi l:

 

Kinh Thnh Cu Чc

Kinh Thnh Do thi

A. Nm quyn sch ca Mi-se:

A. Cc sch lut php:

1. Sng th k

Sng th k

2. Xut -dp-t k.

Xut -dp-t k.

3. L-vi k.

L-vi k.

4. Dn s k.

Dn s k.

5. Phc Truyn lut l k.

Phc Truyn lut l k.

B. Cc sch v lch s:

B. Cc sch tin tri:

6. Gi-su.

2a. Tin tri trܧc:

7. Cc Quan xt.

Gi-su.

8. Ru-t.

Cc Quan xt.

9. I Sa-mu-n.

Sa-mu-n (Sa-mu-n I v II).

10. II Sa-mu-n.

Cc Vua (Cc Vua I v II).

11. I Cc Vua.

2b. Tin tri sau:

12. II Cc Vua.

-sai,

13. I S k.

Gi-r-mi,

14. II S k.

-x-chi-n,

15. E-x-ra.

Sch mܩi hai: -s.

16. N-h-mi.

Gi-n.

17. -x-t.

A-mt.

C. Cc sch vn th:

p-ia.

18. Gip.

Gi-na.

19. Thi Thin.

Mi-ch.

20. Chm Ngn.

Na-hum.

21. Truyn o.

Ha-ba-cc.

22. Nh ca.

S-ph-ni.

D. Cc sch tin tri:

A-gh.

23. -sai.

Xa-cha-ri.

24. Gi-r-mi.

Ma-la-chi.

25. Ca thng.

C. Cc sch vn th:

26. -x-chi-n.

Thi Thin.

27. a-ni-n.

Gip.

28. -s.

Chm Ngn.

29. Gi-n.

Ru-t.

30. A-mt.

Nh ca.

31. p-ia.

Truyn o.

32. Gi-na.

Ca thng.

33. Mi-ch.

-x-t.

34. Na-hum.

a-ni-n.

35. Ha-ba-cc.

E-x-ra v N-h-mi.

36. S-ph-ni.

S k (S k I v II).

37. A-gh.

 

38. Xa-cha-ri.

 

39. Ma-la-chi.

 

 

Cc sch n Kinh (Apocrypha): Kinh Thnh ca Gio hi Cng gio La-m v Chnh thng gio ng phng (Eastern Orthodox) c thm cc quyn sch lch s v th vn Do-thi khc vo. Cc quyn sch ny ܮc gi l Deuterocanon, c ngha l Th Kinh (secondary canon). Ngܩi Do-thi v Tin Lnh gi l Apocrypha, hay n Kinh (hidden canon), cn ܮc gi l Ngy Kinh.

Cc sch n Kinh ܮc vit trong thi gian nܧc Do Thi b ngoi ban h v h hip t th k th ba ljn th k th nht T. C. (trong thi gian bn trm nm yn lng). Cc quyn sch ny, ܮc vit bng ting Hy-b-lai v ting Hy-lp, thܩng khng c xut x r rng, v ܮc cho vo bn dch By Mi bng ting Hy Lp, bn dch La-tinh th k th hai, bn La-tinh Vulgate th k th nm, nn rt ph thng. Ni dung ca cc sch ny c nhiu ch i ngܮc li s dy d ca c Cu Чc ln Tn Чc v th Hi thnh u tin v Gio Hi Cng Gio khng cng nhn. Mi cho ljn thi k ci chnh (Reformation), vo nm 1546 S. C., Hi ng Gio Hi Cng Gio La M, ti thnh Trent nܧc , mi chnh thc cng nhn n Kinh l Thnh (canon) Nj ngn chn phong tro ci chnh v nhng ngܩi theo phong tro (Protestants) khng cho n Kinh nh l li ca Thܮng .

Hai mi nm sau khi n Thnh b ph hy bi qun La m v dn Do Thi b tn lc khp ni, vo nm 90 S. C., mt s hc gi Do Thi hp ti Jamnia, cch Gi-ru-sa-lem chng 50 Km v pha ty, Nj thng nht v hp thc ha Kinh Thnh Do Thi (h loi b n Kinh ra) v h nhn thc rng ch c Kinh Thnh v nhng s dy d trong Kinh Thnh mi c th lin kt dn Do Thi vi nhau d h ni no trn th gii.

c Cha Jsus khng bao gi trch dn t n Kinh trong chc v ca Ngi ti th, cng nh trong c Tn Чc, vi tng cng hn 300 ln trch dn t Cu Чc, chng ta khng thy ch no dng ljn nhng quyn sch ny. Tn hu Tin lnh cho rng n Kinh c gi tr, ng ܮc nghin cu (Gio s Cadman trch dn nhiu on t n Kinh trong quyn Thnh Kinh T in ca ng), tuy nhin cc sch ny khng c thm quyn nh cc sch Cu Чc ܮc c Thnh Linh soi dn.

 

Cc sch n Kinh

1. Tobit

10. Bel and the Dragon

2. Judith

11. I Maccabees

3. Ph bn ca -x-t

12. II Maccabees

4. Tri thc ca S-l-mn

13. I Esdras

5. Ecclesiasticus (Sirach)

14. Li cu nguyn ca Ma-na-se

6. Baruch

15. Thi thin 151

7. Th ca Gi-r-mi

16. III Maccabees

8. Li cu ca A-xa-ria v ba bn H-b-r

17. II Esdras

9. Susana

18. IV Maccabees

 

B. Tn Чc: Thnh th Tn Чc (canon of the New Testament) l nhng quyn sch ܮc c Thnh Linh soi dn. Lm sao chng ta bit rng y l nhng Thnh th hay Tn Чc tht c ng l li ca c Cha Tri hay khng? V c rt nhiu th tn v vn chng C c t thi Cha Jsus, cho nn rt kh m bit sch no l sch Thnh.

Vo th k th 4 S. C., Cng gio hi ngh (Church council) gm mܩi trܪng lo chn cc quyn sch Nj bit vo hng Thnh th, tc l ܮc c Thnh Linh soi dn Nj cho vo Tn Чc. Nguyn tc la chn ca h l nhng ti liu th tn ca cc Mn , S trc tip hc hi t c Cha Jsus nh Phi-e-r, Phao-l, Ging, Ma-thi-, Mc, Lu-ca... l cc quyn sch Thnh, ܮc c Cha Tri h hi. Tuy nhin nhiu Hi thnh lc u hoi nghi v cc sch Gia-c, II Ging, III Ging. Nhiu ngܩi cho rng cc v trn ܮc giao ph mt cng tc vܮt qu kh nng ca loi ngܩi, nhng trn thc t nhng v ny ch khng nh cc sch ܮc gio gii chp nhn t lu, c ngha l h hp thc ho cc Thnh th Tn Чc, ch khng phi c quyn cho quyn sch no l thnh hay khng.

 

Cc quyn sch Tn Чc

1. Ma-thi-

10. -ph-s

19. H-b-r

2. Mc

11. Phi-lp

20. Gia-c

3. Lu-ca

12. C-l-se

21. I Phi-e-r

4. Ging

13. I T-sa-l-ni-ca

22. II Phi-e-r

5. Cng v cc s

14. II T-sa-l-ni-ca

23. I Ging

6. R-ma

15. I Ti-m-th

24. II Ging

7. I C-rinh-t

16. II Ti-m-th

25. III Ging

8. II C-rinh-t

17. Tt

26. Giu-e

9. Ga-la-ti

18. Phi-l-mn

27. Khi huyn

Tn Чc cng c Th kinh (Apocrypha) tuy nhin v khng c gio hi no nhn nhn cc quyn sch ny nn t ngܩi bit ljn. Chng ta khng NJ cp ljn Th kinh Tn Чc ni y.

 

II. Tc Gi:

C-c nhn tin rng c Cha Tri dng nhng ngܩi vit hay trܧc gi Nj truyn t li ca Ngi v chnh Ngi l tc gi ca c quyn Kinh Thnh. Tuy rng c vi quyn sch m chng ta khng bit r ngܩi vit l ai, c c nhn tin quyt rng "C Kinh Thnh l ܮc c Cha Tri soi dn, c ch cho s dy d, b trch, sa tr, dy ngܩi trong s cng bnh" (II Ti-m-th 3:16) v th chng ta cm n Cha nhn lnh li Ngi trong Kinh Thnh d rng sau ny chng ta c th bit xut x ca mt quyn sch no mt cch tܩng tn hn s hiu bit hin ti.

1. Nm sch lut php: a s cc hc gi cho rng Mi-se vit cc quyn sch Sng th k, Xut -dp-t k, L-vi k, Dn s k v Phc Truyn lut l k, cc sch ny ܮc vit vo khon nm 1400 T. C., trܧc khi ng mt. on cui ca Phc Truyn lut l k ni v s qua ǩi ca Mi-se, c l ܮc Gi-su, ngܩi k v ca ng vit.

2. Cc sch lch s:

a.      Gi-su l ngܩi vit sch mang tn ng, ng qua ǩi khon 1375 T. C., cng l thi im m quyn sch ny ܮc hon tt.

b.     Ngܩi ta khng bit r ai vit Cc quan xt. C l sch ny ܮc hon tt vo ǩi vua Sau-l hay a-vt nm 1050-1000 T. C..

c.      Trܧc gi ca sch Ru-t khng ܮc bit r, tuy nhin nhiu ngܩi cho rng Sa-mu-n vit quyn ny. Sch ܮc vit vo ǩi vua a-vt hay sau na v on cui ca sch c NJ cp ljn a-vt.

d.     Sa-mu-n l ngܩi vit hai sch mang tn ca ng. Cc sch ny k li t khi Sa-mu-n ra ǩi cho ljn khi p-sa-ln ni lon vo nm 975 T. C..

e.      Lc u ngܩi ta cho rng tin tri Gi-r-mi vit hai quyn sch Cc Vua. V sau ngܩi ta tin rng c l do mt tin tri khng ܮc bit tn, ng thi vi Gi-r-mi, vit lc lj quc Ba-by-ln xm chim Gi-ru-sa-lem vo nm 587 T. C.

f.       Thy t l E-x-ra l ngܩi vit bn sch S k I, II, E-x-ra v N-h-mi vo cui th k th nm T. C. (N-h-mi c gp phn vo vic bin chp sch N-h-mi on 1-7 v 11-13). Trong cc bn Kinh Thnh c, 4 sch ny l mt.

g.     Chng ta khng bit r ai l trܧc gi ca -x-t. Sch ܮc vit vo khon cui ǩi vua A-su-ru, 465 T. C..

3. Cc sch th vn:

a.      Chng ta khng bit ai l trܧc gi sch Gip. Quyn sch ny ܮc vit vo khon nm 2000 T. C., c ngܩi cho rng sch ܮc vit vo khon nm 950 T. C..

b.     a-vt l trܧc gi sch Thi Thin, ngoi tr cc on sau y: on 72 v 127 do Sa-l-mn vit; on 90 ca Mi-se (nm 1500 T. C.); on 50 v on 73-83 do A-sp vit; Cc on 42, 44-49, 84-85, 87-88 do con chu C-r vit; on 88 do H-man (cng vi con chu C-r); on 89 do -than vit. Thi Thin 137 l on ܮc vit vo nm 538 T. C. ni ljn s bun thm ca nhng k b y qua Ba-by-ln.

c.      Sa-l-mn l trܧc gi sch Chm Ngn, ng vit sch ny vo khon nm 970-931 T. C.. n nm 720 T. C., ngܩi ta thm vo cc on 25-29. on 30 do A-gu-r vit v on 31 do vua L-mu-n son.

d.     Sa-l-mn l ngܩi vit sch Truyn o cng mt lc vi Chm ngn vo khon nm 970-931 T. C.. Nhiu hc gi cho rng cch dng t ng v cu vn cho bit sch ܮc vit sau thi gian trn.

e.      Nh ca cng do Sa-l-mn vit vo nm 965 T. C..

4. Cc sch i tin tri:

a.      Tin tri -sai, con A-mt, vit quyn sch mang tn ng. Sch ܮc vit vo nm 740-700 T. C..

b.     Tin tri Gi-r-mi l trܧc gi ca sch Gi-r-mi, ng thܩng džc cho th k ca ng l Ba-rc chp li. Ba-rc hon tt sch ny sau khi Gi-r-mi cht nm 585 T. C..

c.      Ca thng khng NJ cp ljn ai l ngܩi bin son. Nhiu hc gi cho l Gi-r-mi vit sch ny vo nm 587 hay 586 T. C. trܧc khi Gi-ru-sa-lem ri vo tay ngܩi Ba-by-ln.

d.     Tin tri -x-chi-n l ngܩi vit sch mang tn ng lc dn Do thi b bt lm phu t Ba-by-ln. Sch bt u lc vua Gi-h-gia-kin b bt nm 597 T. C., Gi-r-mi lm tin tri cho ljn nm 573 T. C.

e.      Tin tri a-ni-n vit sch mang tn ng vo nm 536 T. C.. Nhiu hc gi hoi nghi v im ny.

5. Cc sch tiu tin tri:

a.      Tin tri -s, con B--ri lm tin tri 40 nm t nm 755 - 715 T. C.. ng l ngܩi vit sch -s.

b.     Tin tri Gi-n, con Ph-thu-n vit sch Gi-n. V sch khng c NJ cp ljn v vua no nn chng ta khng bit r sch ܮc vit lc no, c th vo nm 835-796 T. C.

c.      Tin tri A-mt, ngܩi chn Th-c-ra vit sch A-mt sau nm 760 T. C.

d.     Tin tri p-ia vit sch p-ia sau khi thnh Gi-ru-sa-lem b sp ǰ vo nm 687 T. C.

e.      Tin tri Gi-na, con trai A-mi-tai vit sch Gi-na vo nm 760 T. C.

f.       Tin-tri Mi-ch, ngܩi M-r-st, lm tin tri t nm 750-687 T. C.. ng vit sch Mi-ch.

g.     Tin tri Na-hum, ngܩi n-ct, vit sch Na-hum vo nm 612 T. C. sau khi thnh Ni-ni-ve b chim v hy dit.

h.     Tin tri Ha-ba-cc ni v s hy dit thnh Gi-ru-sa-lem vo nm 587 T. C., sch ܮc vit vo nm 600 T. C.

i.       A-gh c ngha l vui v, hoan lc. A-gh ni tin tri lm phn khi dn s sau khi b y Ba-by-ln tr v qu vo nm 520 T. C. ng vit sch A-gh.

j.       Xa-cha-ri, con Ba-ra-chi, vit sch Xa-cha-ri t nm 520-475 T. C.. C ngܩi cho rng on 9 ljn 14 ܮc thm vo 30-40 nm sau bi mt ngܩi khc khng r tn.

k.     Tin tri Ma-la-chi vit quyn sch mang tn ng vo nm 450 T. C.

6.     Bn sch phc m:

a.      Chng ta khng bit trܧc gi ca Ma-thi- l ai. Nhiu hc gi cho rng chnh Ma-thi- vit sch ny, c l vo nm 45 S. C..

b.     Nhiu ngܩi cho rng Mc l trܧc gi ca quyn sch mang tn ng. Sch ܮc vit vo nhng nm cui ca thp nin 60.

c.      Sch Lu-ca ܮc vit cho Th--phi-l, mt quan La-m, vo nhng nm u ca thp nin 70 S. C., c l do chnh ng Lu-ca vit.

d.     Chng ta khng bit ai vit sch Ging. C ngܩi cho Ging vit sch ny vo khon cui th k th nht.

7. Cng v cc s : Trܧc gi ca sch Cng v cc s v sch Lu-ca l mt (Lu-ca), ܮc vit cho Th--phi-l, mt quan La-m, vo khon nm 70-80 S. C.

8. Th tn Phao-l: Cc sch ny NJu do Phao-l vit.

a.      R-ma, C-rinh-t I v II ܮc vit vo nm 56 hay 57 S. C.

b.     Chng ta khng bit Ga-la-ti ܮc vit lc no, c l l vo nm 53 S. C. hay l sau na.

c.      -ph-s, Phi-lp, C-l-se v Phi-l-mn ܮc vit khi ng b t vo cui thp nin 50, u thp nin 60 S. C..

d.     T-sa-l-ni-ca I v II vo nm 50 hay 51 S. C.

e.      Ti-m-th I, II v Tt, cn gi l cc Th Tn Mc V, ܮc vit vo khon nm 65 S. C. trong cuc hnh trnh th t ca Phao-l gia hai ln b t La m.

9.     Cc sch th tn khc:

a.      Th H-b-r khng cho chng ta bit ai l ngܩi vit. C th l mt trong nhng nhn vt sau y: Lu-ca v cch hnh vn v ng cng bit nhiu v s dy d ca Phao-l; A-b-l l ngܩi Do thi A-lc-xn- hoc Ba-na-ba l ngܩi L-vi, c hai NJu rt thng tho Kinh Thnh; Si-la, Phi-lp, A-qui-la, B-rt-sin (v ca A-qui-la). Sch ܮc vit trܧc nm 70 S. C.

b.     Gia-c l em ca Cha Jsus l trܧc gi sch Gia-c. Sch ܮc vit vo khon nm 45-48 S. C., cng c th vo nm 60 S. C. v ng da rt nhiu vo cc th tn ca Phao-l trܧc khi ng cht vo nm 62.

c.      Si-mn Phi-e-r, s ca c Cha Jsus Christ l trܧc gi hai quyn sch Phi-e-r ܮc vit vo nm 64 hay 65 S. C.

d.     Trܧc gi ca Ging I, II v III l mt trܪng lo (II Ging 1) khng bit tn, ng vit "Hi con ci b mn ta" (I Ging 5:13)... Cc sch ny ܮc vit vo cui th k th nht, cng thi vi S Ging.

e.      Giu-e, em ca Gia-c (c l l em ca Cha Jsus) vit sch Giu-e vo khon cui th k th nht.

10. Khi huyn: S Ging vit quyn sch ny khi b y o Bt-m ven b bin Tiu (Th nh k). Sch ܮc vit vo nhng nm cui cng ca Quc La m (81-96 S. C.).

 

III. Ngn Ng Nguyn Bn:

Ngoi tr vi on vit bng ting Aramaic, Cu Чc ܮc vit bng Hy-b-lai (Hebrew). Hy-b-lai l mt ngn ng rt phong ph thi by gi vi cc thnh ng, li l y mu sc rt thch hp cho vic ghi chp lch s, th vn, lut php ca Cu Чc. Ting Hy-b-lai l mt trong cc c ng rt xa, ngn ng ny ܮc bo tn mt cch k diu v ܮc hin i ha Nj lm ngn ng chnh ca dn Do-thi ngy nay.

Ting Hy-b-lai ܮc vit t phi sang tri, theo nguyn bn thi xa ch gm c 22 ph m m thi. Ngܩi džc phi cho vo cc nguyn m ty theo kin thc ngn ng ca mnh. V th nhng bn Kinh Thnh Hy-b-lai ܮc trܩng tn qua nhiu th k. Ch c cc nguyn m thay ǰi theo thi gian v a phng.

Nhiu hc gi Do-thi thuc phi Masoretes (do ch masora, masorah c ngha l truyn thng, c truyn) tm cch bo tn cch džc chnh xc bng cch thm vo cc chm, cc gch trn, dܧi hay l bn trong 22 mu t Nj ch cch pht m. Cc hot Ƕng ca nhm hc gi ny bt u vo th k th 2 T. C. ljn th k th 8 S. C..

Bn Kinh Thnh c truyn (hay bn bng ch Maroretes) ܮc bo tn cho ljn ngy nay mt cch huyn b. Vo nm 1947, ti Qumran b pha ty ca bin cht, ngܩi ta tm ܮc di tch ca cc cun Kinh Thnh c (The Dead Sea Scrolls), cc sch ny ܮc vit vo khong nm 200 T. C. ljn nm 68 S. C.. Nhng cun Kinh Thnh ny xc nhn s chnh xc ca cc bn Kinh Thnh ngy nay.

Trong khi , Tn Чc ܮc vit bng ting Hy Lp, gi l koine, y l ngn ng thng dng ca thi i by gi[2]. Ngn ng koine c hai loi: Vn chng v ph thng. Bn quyn sch phc m ܮc vit bng ting koine ph thng ǥc bit vi nh hܪng ca ngn ng a phng. Sau , cc Gio ph chuyn sang dng ting koine vn chng. Mc d ܮc vit bng ting ph thng, cc sch H-b-r, Gia-c, II Phi-e-r t ljn trnh Ƕ vn hc rt cao.

 

IV. Cc Bn Dch Kinh Thnh.

(Xin xem thm chi tit trong Thnh Kinh T in ca Gio s Cadman)

V Kinh Thnh khng cn li mt nguyn bn no, ch tm ܮc cc bn sao chp rt xa m thi, nn cc bn , c gi tr nh nguyn bn, ܮc gn gi rt cn thn trong nhng vin bo tng. Nn nh nguyn bn rt c ca phn th nht Cu Чc ܮc vit cch nay Ƕ 3.400 nm v phn cui cng Tn Чc ܮc vit xong Ƕ 1.900 nm trܧc y. Chc Cha khng cho Nj li mt t hoc cun no ca nguyn bn, s gy c vp phm cho ngܩi ta th ly.

Kinh Thnh ܮc dch sang ngoi ng k t th k th 5 T. C., trong ǩi ng tin tri E-x-ra, khi dn Do-thi tr v nܧc sau thi gian b lu i 70 nm ti Ba-by-ln. Vo thi ny c nhiu cng ng ngܩi Do-thi ni ting Aramaic, v vy cn phi dch Kinh Thnh Nj h hiu. Lc by gi, khi nhm hp trong NJn th, c mt ngܩi džc Kinh Thnh bng ting Hy-b-lai v ngܩi ng k bn dch li bng ting Aramaic, ging nh tnh trng nhiu Hi thnh Vit Nam hi ngoi.

Bܧc sang giai on lj quc La M, vn ha th gii chu nh hܪng Hy Lp. Rt nhiu cng ng Do Thi sng trong vng ni ting Hy Lp, a ljn nhu cu dch Kinh Thnh ra ting ny.

Vo khong nm 200 T.C., vua Ptolemy ca Ai-cp chn 6 hc gi t mi chi phi Y-s-ra-n tc 72 v (ܮc gi vn tt l by mi) ljn Alexandria, Ai Cp Nj dch Ng Kinh ca Mi-se ra ting Hy Lp cho th vin ni ting gm trn 200.000 quyn sch ca ng. Bn dch ny ܮc gi l bn dch By Mi hay Septuagint, ch gm 5 quyn sch lut php M-se m thi. V sau cc sch khc ca Cu Чc ܮc dch tip ra ting Hy Lp, bi cc hc gi khc, cng ܮc xp nhp vo bn By Mi.

Cc tn u tin ni ting Hy Lp, nn bn By Mi (Septuagint) rt thng dng. Khi C-c gio bnh trܧng ra nhiu quc gia khc, Kinh Thnh ܮc dch ra ting Syrie v mt bn dch ra ting La-tinh ܮc hon thnh vo khong 100 S. C., bn th k th 2.

Nm 383 S. C. Gio Hong Saint Damasus I nh Gio ph Saint Jerome nhun chnh bn dch La-tinh. Bn dch ny hon thnh vo nm 405 S.C., ܮc gi l bn Vulgate, c ngha l thng dng (bn th k th 5).

Bn Kinh Thnh Do Thi gio (Hebrew Bible) hin nay ܮc in t bn Masoretes nm 1088 S. C., bn ny hin do th vin thnh ph Saint Petersburg gi. Bn Masoretes c nht l bn Aleppo vo u th k th 10.

Sau y l cc bn c xa cn tn ti ljn ngy nay:

1. Bn Sinaiticus: L bn By Mi do Tischendorf tm ra trong nh dng Thnh Catherine trn ni Si-na-i vo nm 1859. Bn ny ܮc chp vo th k th 4. c Cu Чc bng ting Hy Lp v c Tn Чc vit rt cn thn trn da, hin ܮc gn gi ti vin bo tng Lun n. Cc ti liu ny ܮc xut bn thnh bn cun sch vo nm 1867, y l bn c nht cn li.

2. Bn Vaticanus: Bn ny ܮc chp vo th k th 4, v ܮc Gio hong Nicolas V Nj ti th vin thnh La-m.

3. Bn Alexandrinus: Bn ny ܮc chp vo th k th 5, v ܮc Cyril, trܪng lo thnh Constantinople, dng cho Anh Hong Charles I, vo nm 1627 v ܮc Nj ti vin bo tng nܧc Anh.

4. Bn phraemi, ti th vin Paris (ܮc vit chng ln bi ca Thnh phraem).

5. Bn Bazae: Bn song ng ܮc vit bng ting Hy Lp v La-tinh i ngang nhau, gi trong trܩng i hc Cambridge nܧc Anh. Thodore de Bze, bn ca Jean Calvin, tm ra nm 1560 trong nh dng Thnh Irne, ti Lyons.

6. Bn Claromontanus, th k th 6, Nj ti Paris.

7. Cc bn c khc theo th t ca cc ch ci (Alphabet):

a. Cc bn Arabic.

b. Bn Aramaic Targum (2 bn chnh l Palestinian Targum v Babylonian Targum) l cc bn din ܮc dch sau khi dn Do Thi t Ba-by-ln tr v.

c. Bn Armenian: ܮc in v xut bn ln th nht ti Amsterdam nn 1666.

d. Cc bn Egyptian: Bng ting Memphic, ting Thbaide hay cc th ng khc.

. Bn Ethiopic: Bng th ng c Axum.

e. Bn Gothic: ܮc dch ra vo cui th k th 4.

Bn Kinh Thnh La-tinh (Biblia Latina)

in ln u tin ti Venice, i Li,

nm 1475.


g. Bn La-tinh:

1g. Bn La-tinh c hoc bn Bc Phi th k th 2, dng ting La-tinh bnh dn cho ngܩi a phng.

2g. Bn Itala hoc bn Italian, th k th 4, dng ting La-tinh ca ngܩi La-m, vn chng hn.

3g. Bn Vulgate th k th 5 do Jerome hiu nh. n nm 1455, khi c my in, quyn sch u tin ܮc in ra l quyn Kinh Thnh La-tinh Vulgate sau khi ܮc hiu nh mt ln na v ܮc gi l bn Vulgate th k th 15.

h. Bn Samaritan.

i. Bn Slavonic: Bt u t cui th k th 9, sau nhiu th k na mi xong.

k. Bn Syriac (Peshitta): ܮc dch t nhng th k u tin sau Thin Cha.

 

Cc bn dch hin i gm c :

        Bn ting Anh u tin do John Wycliffe dch vo thp nin 1380.

        Bn ting Anh ca William Tyndale, nm 1525 gm Tn Чc v nm 1531 Cu Чc.

        Bn dch Kinh Thnh ra ting c t bn Vulgate ca Luther. Tn Чc ܮc xut bn nm 1522, c Kinh Thnh nm 1534, v ܮc hiu nh nm 1544. Kinh Thnh c gip ǫ nhiu trong s ci chnh Hi Thnh v cng dng Nj dch ra ting Thy in, Ha Lan, an Mch, Phn Lan, v i Nh Lan.

        Nm 1604, vua James I ca Anh quc lp mt hi ng gm 50 hc gi nhun chnh li cc bn dch Anh ng c t trܧc. Cng vic ܮc hon thnh vo nm 1611 v ܮc gi l bn King James (KJV) hay l "Authorized Version". Vi li vn hoa m, bn dch tr thnh mt ng vn tuyt tc trong kho tng vn chng ca nܧc Anh. D v sau Gio Hi Anh Quc cho nhun chnh li bn King James, cng trnh ܮc hon tt vo nm 1895 v ܮc gi l bn Revised Version, nhng a s Hi thnh v tn vn cn dng bn King James cho ljn ngy nay[3].

        Nh cc bn sao c mi tm ܮc; Brian Walton xut bn mt Tn Чc ting Hy Lp, nm 1657.

        Kinh Thnh ton b ܮc in bng ting Php vo nm 1487; ting vo nm 1530-32; ting c vo nm 1534; ting Anh vo nm 1535; ting Thy in vo nm 1541; ting Ha Lan vo nm 1560; ting Ty Ban Nha vo nm 1569-1602; ting i Nh Lan vo nm 1584; ting Phn Lan vo nm 1642; ting n (Carey) vo nm 1834; ting Trung Hoa (Morison) vo nm 1834; ting Vit Nam vi La-tinh vo nm 1916; ting Vit Nam vo nm 1926; ting Ai-lao vo nm 1930; ting Cam-b-chia (Tn Чc) vo nm 1934.

 

Vo th k th 20, c rt nhiu bn dch Anh ng dng thay th cc bn dch xa, vn chng li thi. Cc bn ny gm c :

        The Bible: Bn dch ting M, hon thnh nm 1931.

        Revised Standard Version ca Gio Hi Church of Christ, nm 1957.

        Bn Kinh Thnh Jerusalem do Gio Hi Cng Gio nm 1966 ti Anh Quc.

        The New English Bible hon tt vo nm 1970.

        The New American Bible ca Gio Hi Cng Gio Hoa K, nm 1970.

        The New American Standard Bible nm 1971.

        The Good News Bible ca Thnh Kinh Hi Hoa K, nm 1976.

        The New International Version (NIV), Thnh Kinh Hi Nu Чc, nm 1976.

        The Common Bible, nm 1973, y l bn dch Anh ng u tin ܮc c ba Gio Hi Tin Lnh, Cng Gio, v Chnh Thng Gio Hy Lp (Greek Orthodox) cng nhn.

        The New Revised Standard Version, ca The National Council of Churches, ܮc hon tt vo nm 1990, cng ܮc cc nh lnh o C c gio tha nhn.

 

V. Kinh Thnh Ting Vit Nam. [4]

Theo s liu th vo nm 1533, c mt ngܩi Ty phng ܮc php rao ging o Thin Cha tnh Nam Sn (Nam nh). Sau nhiu Gio s Cng Gio u chu ljn Vit Nam Nj truyn gio. Mi cho ljn nm 1624, c mt gio s ngܩi Php, mt hc gi ti ba li lc, l Cha c L hay Alexandre de Rhodes ljn Vit Nam. ng hot Ƕng c min bc ln min nam trong 22 nm. ng thnh tho ngn ng, lch s, a l Vit Nam, v hon tt vic chuyn ǰi ch nm ra ting Vit dng mu t La-tinh. Vi vi thay ǰi v tu chnh sau ny, ngn ng do ng son tho tr thnh quc ng vo cui thp nin 1910. Trong giai on phi thai ca loi ch vit mi, cc Linh Mc bt u vit cc sch t vng Vit Nam La-tinh... Vo nm 1872, Gio Hi Cng Gio pht hnh nhng phn Kinh Thnh ri rc u tin bng Vit Ng. Cc bn ny ܮc dnh ring cho hng gio phm s dng m thi.

Khi o Tin Lnh ljn Vit Nam vo nm 1911, mt s sch Phc m ܮc dch ra ting Vit vi mc ch chun b cho cng vic truyn gio. Vo nm 1916, Hi Truyn Gio Phc m Lin Hip (C&MA) bt u cho phin dch ton b Kinh Thnh[5] sang ting Vit. Cng trnh ny ko di gn 10 nm v ljn nm 1926, cc tn hu Tin Lnh Vit Nam c b Kinh Thnh u tin bng ngn ng ca mnh do Thnh Kinh Hi Lin Hip (United Bible Societies) xut bn. Bn dch ny do mt nhm hc gi gm c nh vn Phan Khi, ng b Gio S William C. Cadman, Gio S John D. Olsen thc hin vi s gip ǫ ca mt s thnh vin khc trong c: c Trn Vn Dng, sinh vin trܩng Cao ng ng Dng, c T Phc v vi hc gi khc. Tuy nhin ngܩi phin dch chnh l c Phan Khi.

Nm 1971, nh xut bn Ra Khi ti Si Gn pht hnh Kinh Thnh ton b do Linh Mc Trn c Hun thc hin, vi s gip ǫ ca y Ban Phin Dch do Gim Mc Trng Cao i hܧng dn.

Nm 1976, ton b Kinh Thnh do Linh Mc Nguyn Th Thun thc hin ܮc hon tt. Phn Tn Чc trong bn dch ny ܮc phin dch t nguyn vn Hy Lp. Tuy nhin, v tnh hnh chnh tr ti Vit Nam khng thun li cho vic xut bn Kinh Thnh, nn cc Linh Mc dng Cha Cu Th ti La Verne, California cho xut bn ton b bn dch ny vo nm 1980.

Nm 1982, Hi Living Bible International ti Hong Kong pht hnh Thnh Kinh Tn Чc do Mc S Tin S L Hong Phu thc hin. Bn dch mi ny thܩng ܮc džc gi bit ljn dܧi tn Thnh Kinh Tn Чc Din .

Cng vo u thp nin 1980, Gio Hi Cng Gio pht hnh bn dch Kinh Thnh Tn Чc do Hng Y Trnh Vn Cn thc hin, ti H Ni. Bn dch ny ܮc Cng ng Cng Gio Vit Nam ti bn ln th nht vo nm 1985 ti Orange County, California.

Vo nm 1987, Vietnamese Bible Inc. ܮc thnh lp ti Midland, Texas, vi mc ch thc hin mt bn dch Kinh Thnh Vit Ng mi. Quyn Tn Чc ܮc pht hnh vo nm 1996. Ton b Kinh Thnh d tr s ܮc hon tt vo nm 2000.

Nm 1994, Ta Tng Gim Mc ti Thnh Ph H Ch Minh xut bn 30.000 Thnh Kinh Tn Чc do Linh Mc Hong c nh v Linh Mc Trn Phc Nhn phin dch do Thnh Kinh Hi Quc T (International Bible Societies) bo tr v xut bn.

Nm 1995, ton b Kinh Thnh Vit Nam ܮc ti bn ti Nng, vi vi hiu nh nh t bn Kinh Thnh nm 1926. Vic ti bn ny do Hi Thnh Tin Lnh Vit Nam thc hin vi s h tr ca Thnh Kinh Hi Lin Hip (UBS). y l bn Kinh Thnh u tin ca Gio Hi Tin Lnh Vit Nam in v pht hnh ti qu nh sau nm 1975, ljn nay tng s pht hnh ܮc trn 100.000 quyn.

Ngoi d n phin dch Kinh Thnh sang Vit Ng ca Vietnamese Bible Inc., nhiu Mc S cng ang dch cc phn Kinh Thnh ri rt vi cc sc thi khc nhau, thch hp cho cc thnh phn džc gi Vit Nam ngy nay. Hin nay, Thnh Kinh Hi Lin Hip (UBS) cng ang bo tr mt ban dch thut ti Vit Nam trong d n hiu nh bn Kinh Thnh nm 1926 Nj tha mn nhu cu ngn ng qu nh v ting Vit Nam thay ǰi nhiu trong mt phn t th k va qua.

 

VI. Kt Lun:

Kinh Thnh l mt b sch gm 66 quyn ܮc vit bi nhiu ngܩi t vua, quan, cc nh lnh o dn Do Thi, ljn y s (thy thuc), ngܩi thu thu, ngܩi chi lܧi, ngܩi chn chin... trong thi gian hn 1500 nm. Tuy vy li l trong Kinh Thnh t u ti cui NJu oai nghim ging nhau nh ca mt tc gi Ƕc nht. Cc nh kho c tm thy nhiu d kin xc nhn s trung thc ca Kinh Thnh.

Kinh Thnh l quyn sch u tin ܮc in ra khi loi ngܩi mi pht minh my in vo nm 1455. Kinh Thnh cng l mt quyn sch ܮc dch ra nhiu th ting nht, s n hnh t trܧc ljn nay nhiu v s khng th kim k chnh xc ܮc.

Nh Kinh Thnh m nhiu sc tc trn th gii c ܮc mt ngn ng vit v ting ni, vn ha h ܮc phong ph thm hn. Quyn Kinh Thnh cn c kh nng thay ǰi ǩi sng v s ngܩi t tuyt vng, au kh ljn hy vng, hnh phc.

Tuy nhin mc tiu ti hu ca Kinh Thnh l gii thiu cho chng ta Cha Cu Th Jsus trong chng trnh ca Thܮng cho loi ngܩi, ni lin mi tng giao gia chng ta vi ng To Ha.

Hng Mai

Ma Phc Sinh, 1999

 

==============================

nh Bn


 

 

-12-

 

Nov. 24-27 The Executive Committee met at Tourane.

 

Significant items:

 

1. The Roman Catholic Bible to be revised in pre-

paration for publication as soon as possible.

The Bible Society to be consulted.

2. Two versions of the Bible to be prepared, one

for Tonkin, the other for Annam and Cochin-China.

3. The present missionary translation of the Gospels,

Acts, Romans and Genesis was called the "com-

promise version." The Cadmans in the north and

J. Olsen and I. Stebbins in the south were to

revise this version suitable to their respective

areas and as part of No. I and No. 2 above.

4. Mr. Jeffrey requested to consider Bible School ministry.

Committee requested the Board for $5000. to build

a second residence in Tourane and additional

funds to buy property and build a residence and

chapel in Saigon.

5. A recommendation that the Mission in Indo-China

affiliate with the Mission Evangelique de Paris

in order to have better rapport with the French

Government. Mr. lrwin recommended this as a

result of his visit in France.

 

December. Mr. Jaffray consulted with Mr. Anderson of the B.F.B.S.

in Hong Kong. Advice: await the arrival of French

missionaries before continuing further revision and

translation .

Street chapels rented in Saigon and Hanoi.

Mr. Doan van Khanh assigned to Saigon as evangelist.

A cylinder press purchased by Mr. Cadman in America.

 

Statistics for 1920

 

Station Members Offerings Baptisms

 

Hanoi 10 $40.20

Tourane 115 253.50 25 (15 men/10 women)

Saigon 6 12. 7

______ _________ ______

Totals 131 305.70 32

 

 

 

         (Bn sao Bin bn bui hp ca Ban Chp Hnh Truyn Gio ti Tourane ( Nng) vo ngy 24-27 thng 11, c l vo nm 1921)

         Ch thch: B.F.B.S.: British & Foreign Bible Society hay Thnh Kinh Hi Anh Quc.

 



[1] Theo ting Hy-lp, T Biblia v Biblia l danh t s nhiu ch cc quyn sch, Biblio v Biblion l danh t s t. Ch Biblia y l ting La-tinh, s t v ging ci, ܮc cc nܧc Ty u dng.

[2] A-lch-sn i lj hay A-lch-sn III l vua Hy Lp, ln ngi lc 20 tui, l mn nj ca nh hin trit Aristole. T nm 334, khi ng 22 tui, ljn khi ng qua ǩi nm 323 T. C., ng chinh phc tt c cc x trong vng, v mang vn ha Hy Lp ljn cc ni ny. nh hܪng vn ho ny tn ti qua nhiu th k sau Cha.

[3] Khi sa son bn "Authorized Version" ting Anh (KJV), ngܩi ta cha tm ܮc ba bn c nht: bn Sinaiticus, bn Vaticanus v bn Alexandrinus; song khi sa son "Revised Version" th c dng cc bn ny.

[4] on ny ܮc trch ra t bi "Qu Trnh Phin Dch Kinh Thnh Sang Ting Vit" do Phܧc Nguyn vit v ܮc ng trn bo Linh Lc ca Gio Hi Tin Lnh Gim L vo thng 1/1996. Xin xem thm nguyn bn.

[5] Xem nh bn Bin bn bui hp ca Ban Chp Hnh Truyn Gio ti Tourane ( Nng) vo ngy 24-27 thng 11, c l vo nm 1920 hay 1921 cui bi ny (trang 16).